Arquivos para TinyML

Mug, or not Mug, that is the question!

18 18-03:00 março 18-03:00 2022 — Deixe um comentário

EdgeAI made simple – Exploring Image Classification with Arduino Portenta, Edge Impulse, and OpenMV

Introduction

This tutorial explores the Arduino Portenta, a development board that includes two processors that can run tasks in parallel. Portenta can efficiently run processes created with TensorFlow™ Lite. For example, one of the cores computing a computer vision algorithm on the fly (inference), having the other leading with low-level operations like controlling a motor and communicating or acting as a user interface.

The onboard wireless module allows the management of WiFi and Bluetooth® connectivity simultaneously.

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Two Parallel Cores

H7’s central processor is the dual-core STM32H747, including a Cortex® M7 running at 480 MHz and a Cortex® M4 running at 240 MHz. The two cores communicate via a Remote Procedure Call mechanism that seamlessly allows calling functions on the other processor. Both processors share all the on-chip peripherals and can run:

  • Arduino sketches on top of the Arm® Mbed™ OS
  • Native Mbed™ applications
  • MicroPython / JavaScript via an interpreter
  • TensorFlow™ Lite

Memory

Memory is crucial for embedded machine Learning projects. Portenta H7 board can host up to 64 MB of SDRAM and 128 MB of QSPI Flash. In my case, my board comes with 8MB of SDRAM and 16MB of Flash QSPI. But it is essential to consider that the MCU SRAM is the one to be used with machine learning inferences; that for the STM32H747 is only 1MB. This MCU also has incorporated 2MB of FLASH, mainly for code storage.

Vision Shield

We will add a Vision Shield to our Portenta board for use in vision applications, which brings industry-rated features, like Ethernet (or LoRa), camera, and microphones.

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  • Camera: Ultra-low-power Himax HM-01B0 monochrome camera module with 320 x 320 active pixel resolution support for QVGA.
  • Microphone: 2 x MP34DT05, an ultra-compact, low-power, omnidirectional, digital MEMS microphone built with a capacitive sensing element and an IC interface.
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Regression can be hand when classification goes with a high number of classes.

Introduction

The most common TinyML projects by far involve classification. We can easily find examples on home automation (personal assistant), health (respiratory and heart diseases), animal sensing (elephant and cow behavior), industry (anomaly detection), etc.

But what happens when more than a few categories are necessary for a project? Even trying to classify 10 or 20 different categories is not easy. I recently saw a student in our university working on an exciting project. He was trying to find the amount of medicine (ml/cc) on a syringe using images.

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Of course, his first approach was to classify different images of the same syringe, but when he ended with dozens of categories (1cc, 2cc, 3cc… 30cc…), the model started to become complicated. So, another idea was tried: “How about to define the range of volume inside the syringe and to use discrete steps to measure it?”. Well, this could be understood as a regression problem! And that was what was done with great success.

Aditya Mangalampalli developed a similar project, published at Edge Impulse Blog: Estimate Weight From a Photo Using Visual Regression in Edge Impulse. There, Aditya collected a total of 50 images for each 10 grams up to 400 grams, totaling 2050 images. And note that each image on dataset was labelled with the weight it represents:

  • 41 labels: 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, 290, 300, 310, 320, 330, 340, 350, 360, 370, 380, 390, 400.
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You can learn more about using regression with Edge Impulse Studio on the tutorial Predict the Future with Regression Models.

White Wine Quality using Regression

We will use a white wine dataset, public available at the UCI Machine Learning Repository: Wine Quality, for this project. The repository has two datasets related to red and white variants of the Portuguese “Vinho Verde” wine. It consists of a quality ranking and measured physical attributes for 1599 Vinho Verde wines from Portugal. The data was collected from May 2004 to February 2007.

Data provided by P. Cortez, A. Cerdeira, F. Almeida, T. Matos and J. Reis. Modeling wine preferences by data mining from physicochemical properties. In Decision Support Systems, Elsevier, 47(4):547-553, 2009.

DatasetAttribute Information:

Input variables:

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Output variable : quality (score between 0 and 10) – Min = 3 and Max = 9

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